The human body mostly consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs, as well as numerous internal organ groups such as respiratory, circulatory and a central nervous system.
The dead body of a human is referred to as a cadaver, or corpse. The dead body of an animal is sometimes called a carcass.
The study of the structure of the body is called anatomy.
Look at the diagram below. It shows the inside of the human body with the English names for each organ labelled. Can you match the English names to the correct name in your native language?
Internal organs (by region)
Head and neck 头部和颈部
Limbic system 边缘系统
Thyroid and Parathyroids 甲状腺和甲状旁腺
Abdomen and pelvis (both sexes) 腹部和骨盆（男女）
Intestine – large 小肠-大
Intestine – small 肠-小
Common names of well known parts of the human body, from top to bottom:
- Forehead 前额
- Jaw 颚
- Cheek 脸颊
- Chin 下巴
- Neck 下巴
- Shoulders 肩膀
- Elbow 肘
- Wrist 肘
- Hand 手
- Fingers 手
- Thumb 拇指
- Spine 拇指
- Chest 拇指
- Thorax 胸部
- Abdomen 腹部
- Groin 腹股沟
- Hip 髋关节
- Buttocks 臀部
- Leg 腿
- Thigh 大腿
- Knee 大腿
- Calf 小牛
- Heel 脚跟
- Ankle 脚踝
- Foot 脚
- Toes 脚趾
Other superficial structures. 表面的结构。
- eye 眼
- ear 耳朵
- nose 鼻子
- mouth 口
- teeth 牙齿
- tongue 舌头
- throat 喉咙
- adam’s apple 喉结
- breast 乳房
- penis 阴茎
- scrotum 阴囊
- navel 阴囊
Worlds Tallest and Smallest People
Bao Xishun (also known as Xi Shun or “The Big Guy” 鲍喜顺) (born 1951) is a herdsman from Inner Mongolia, China, who was recognized by Guinness World Records as one of the world’s tallest living men. On September 17, 2009, Turk Sultan Kösen overtook Bao Xishun as the tallest living man in the world, when he was measured by Guinness World Records, standing 2.47 metres (8 ft 1 in) tall and 364 pounds.
Robert Pershing Wadlow (February 22, 1918 – July 15, 1940) was the tallest person in history for whom there is irrefutable evidence. Wadlow is sometimes known as the Alton Giant or Giant of Illinois because of his upbringing in Alton, Illinois.
Wadlow reached 8 ft 11.1 in (2.72 m) in height and weighed 485 lb (220 kg) at his death at age 22. His great size and his continued growth in adulthood was due to hypertrophy of his pituitary gland which results in an abnormally high level of human growth hormone. He showed no indication of an end to his growth even at the time of his death.
Zeng Jinlian ( 曾金莲) (June 26, 1964 – February 13, 1982) was the tallest female ever recorded in medical history, taking Jane Bunford’s record. She is also the only female counted among the twelve individuals in medical history who reached a verified eight feet or more. At the time of her death at the age of 17, in Hunan, China, she was 8 ft 1.75 in (249 cm) tall. However, she could not stand up straight due to a severely deformed spine. Nevertheless, she was the tallest person in the world at the time. In the year
between the death of 8 feet 2 inch Don Koehler and her own, she surpassed fellow ‘eight-footers’ Gabriel Estêvão Monjane and Suleiman Ali Nashnush. Her growth patterns mirrored those of Robert Wadlow, as shown by the table below.
Khagendra Thapa Magar
Khagendra Thapa Magar (born October 14, 1992), son of Rup Bahadur and Dhana Maya Thapa Magar, was the shortest man in the world until 2011. He comes from Nepal and measures 0.67 m (1 ft 10 in).
Chandra Bahadur Dangi
Chandra Bahadur Dangi (born on November 30, 1939) is the shortest man in the world, measuring 0.546 m (1 ft 9 in). Dangi is a primordial dwarf. He broke the record of Gul Mohammed (1957-1997), the shortest adult human whose height was 22.5 inches. Chandra came to news highlights of local media when a wood contractor saw him in his village. All of his family members are of usual size.
He was awarded the title of Shortest adult human ever recorded after measuring his height three times in 24 hours. The chief editor of Guinness Book of World Records said that Chandra is the only person in Guinness’ 57 years history to record the title of the shortest man at the age of 72.
Since Dangi is 72 years old he has no wish to get married anymore. He lives with his five brothers in a remote village of Nepal which is some 400 km away from the country’s capital. He wishes to travel all parts of his country and the world. He stated that with him being the shortest man of the world and belonging to Nepal, he wants to popularize his village and his country through the medium of this title.
Jon Brower Minnoch
Jon Brower Minnoch (29 September 1941 – 10 September 1983) was the heaviest man recorded in history. At his peak weight, he was approximately 1400 lb (635 kg, 100 stone). This figure was only a close estimation, however, because his extreme size, poor health, and lack of mobility prevented use of a scale. He was a resident of Bainbridge Island, Washington.
Amazing Facts About Your Body
- During your lifetime, you will produce enough saliva to fill a 10,000 litre swimming pool.
- The stomach’s digestive acids are strong enough to dissolve razor blades.
- The lungs contain over 300,000 million capillaries (tiny blood vessels). If they were laid end to end, they would stretch 2400km (1500 miles).
- A man’s testicles manufacture 10 million new sperm cells each day – enough that he could repopulate the entire planet in only 6 months!
- Human bone is as strong as granite in supporting weight. A block of bone the size of a matchbox can support 9 tonnes – that is four times as much as concrete can support.
- In 30 minutes, the average body gives off enough heat (combined) to bring a half gallon of water to boil.
- A foreskin, the size of a postage stamp, from circumcised babies take only 21 days to grow skin that can cover three (3) basketball courts. Thanks to science the laboratory-grown skin is used in treating burn patients.
- You could remove a large part of your internal organs and survive. The human body may appear fragile but it’s possible to survive even with the removal of the stomach, the spleen, 75 percent of the liver, 80 percent of the intestines, one kidney, one lung, and virtually every organ from the pelvic and groin area. You might not feel too great, but the missing organs wouldn’t kill you.
- A human head remains conscious for about 15 to 20 seconds after it is been decapitated.
- About 32 million bacteria call every inch of your skin home.
- A man’s testicles manufacture 10 million new sperm cells each day – enough that he could repopulate the entire planet in only 6 months.
- When you sleep, you grow by about 8mm (0.3in). The next day you shrink back to your former height. The reason is that your cartilage discs are squeezed like sponges by the force of gravity when you stand or sit.
- A single human blood cell takes only 60 seconds to make a complete circuit of the body.
- The female ovaries contain nearly half-a-million egg cells, yet only 400 or so will ever get the opportunity to create a new life. 
- In a year 100% of your bodies atoms will have been exchanged and it only takes 16 days for 72% of the atoms in your body to be replaced because 72% of your body is water.