The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is intended to represent pronunciation. When learning a new language, using the IPA allows learners to map spelling to new pronunciations. The IPA helps you pronounce words you have never heard.
Native English learners learn pronunciation long before school. They learn to speak by listening to their parents, friends, TV and so forth. There is no need for them to use IPA to understand their native language.
When learning to read and write a school, the student maps pronunciation, word fragments and sounds that they already can speak, to spellings. It is the reverse process of the foreign language student.
So, no, English students do not learn IPA when learning English reading/writing at school.