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How do I learn English idioms without an English environment?

Many idioms have a basis in literature. If you are well read, you will understand the reference in the idiom and thus the meaning. In particular, Shakespeare, Mark Twain and the King James version of the Bible are rich sources. Other idioms are quotations from famous people. The internet is full of quotation websites where you can read these quote. Reading biographies of famous people such as Churchill and Gandhi will give you the background to many idioms that they coined. Some idioms come from popular culture. Watch movies and listen to English music. Especially older movies and music rather than modern ones. For example, Casablanca, Lawrence of Arabia, Spartacus, The Godfather, The Wizard of Oz, Clockwork Orange, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, etc.

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For English native speakers, can you easily distinguish people who speak English as their mother language from those who don’t based on the writing style?

Sometimes yes and sometimes no. It the non-native speaker has a high standard of English then it would be very difficult if not impossible. Generally, you can spot a non-native speaker by the errors they make. While some native speakers do make errors, they will make different kinds of errors. Recognising certain types of errors can give away the writer’s cultural background. For example, a writer who mixes up then/than would be an American with native English skills. Whereas, writers who often omit the space after a full stop or put the space before a full stop, show a likely Chinese cultural background. (When typing in Chinese there is no need to insert spaces between sentences as the Chinese 。contains whitespace in the character block.)